It is the type of cancer where cancerous cells are formed which are actually abnormal and defective cells. We will discuss its stages, its types, uterine cancer symptoms, its treatment and diagnosis.
What is uterine cancer?
Uterine cancer is the cancer which is the abnormal or malignant growth of any of the cells that consist of uterine tissues. It occurs in the organ known as uterus.
Types of uterine cancer:
Uterine cancer has 3 types which are written down below:
- Endometrial cancer.
- Endometroid adenocarcinoma: It accounts for mostly cases of the endometrium cancer.
- Uterine carcinosarcoma: In this type of the uterine cancer cells look like the endometrium cancer and look like thesarcoma.
Stages of uterine cancer:
Stage 1 A uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer is found only in endometrium or less than o1/2 of the myometrium. It is T1a, N0, and M0.
Stage 2 B uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer or the tumor has spread to 1/2 or more part of the myometrium. It is T1b, N0, and M0.
Stage 2 uterine cancer: The tumor has spread from the uterus to the cervical stroma but not to other parts of the body (T2, N0, M0).
Stage 3 uterine cancer: The cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but it is still only in the pelvic area (T3, N0, M0).
Stage 3 A uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer has spread to serosa of uterus and or the tissue of the fallopian tubes and even to the ovaries but it does not spread to the other parts of the body. It is T3a, N0,and M0.
Stage 3 B uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer or tumor has spread to vagina or to the next of the uterus it is T3b, N0,and M0.
Stage 3 C1 uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer has spread to the regional pelvic lymph nodes. It isT1 to T3, N1, and M0.
Stage 3 C2 uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer has spread to the para-aortic lymph nodes with or even without its spread to the regional pelvic lymph nodes. It is T1 to T3, N2, M0.
Stage 4 A uterine cancer: The cancer has spread to the mucosa of the rectum or to the bladder. It is T4, any N, and the M0.
Stage 4 B uterine cancer: During this stage the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the groin area, and/or it has spread to distant organs, such as the bones or lungs (any T, any N, M1).
Grade of uterine cancer:
The letter G have been used to define the grade for the uterine cancer.
GX grade: The grade cannot be evaluated.
G1 grade: The cells in this grade are well differentiated.
G2 grade: The cells in this grade are moderately differentiated.
G3 grade grade: The cells in this grade are poorly differentiated.
G4 grade: The cells in this grade are undifferentiated.
Causes of uterine cancer:
Just like many other types of the cancer whose cause is not known yet the cause agents of uterine cancer are still unknown. But its risk factors have been identified and are discussed below under the heading of risk factors of uterine cancer
Uterine cancer symptoms:
Listed here are the uterine cancer symptoms:
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding, vaginal spotting, or vaginal discharge
- Pain and trouble while emptying the bladder.
- Pain during sex.
- Pain in the pelvic area.
Risk factors of uterine cancer:
Age greatly influence the risk or chance of developing the uterine cancer. This type of cancer is most often observed in women who are over the age 50 years and the average age is 60 years..
It is really a big issue in our society. Fatty tissues in females who are obese or overweight produce additional estrogen, which is a sex hormone that could increase the risk of developing the uterine cancer. The risk of its development increases with an increase in body weight or mass index which is the ratio of a person’s weight and his height. Around 40 percent of cases of uterine cancer are linked to the obesity.
White females or women are more likely to develop the uterine cancer as compare to the black women.
This type of cancer might be in families where colon cancer is inherited hereditary. Let us take the example that, females in the families with the hereditary non-poly-posis colorectal cancer or the Lynch syndrome, they have a higher and greater risk for developing the uterine cancer. It is commonly recommended that females who are under the age of 60 years having endometrial cancer should get her tumors tested for the Lynch Syndrome even if they do not have a family history of the bowel cancer or some other cancers. Almost 2 percent to 5percent of the women with the endometrial cancer have the Lynch Syndrome. In the US, among them 1,000 to 2,500 are diagnosed in endometrial cancer each year and they may have the genetic condition.
Females might have the increased risk of the uterine cancer if they had the endometrial hyperplasia or if they were having diabetes.
Those females who had breast cancer, colon cancer, or ovarian cancer may have an increased risk of getting the uterine cancer.
Females who take the drug names tamoxifen or Nolvadex to prevent or to treat breast cancer have an greater and increased risk of developing the uterine cancer. But, the benefits of tamoxifen are usually outweighing the risk of developing the uterine cancer, however all females should discuss the benefits and risks of thetamoxifen with her doctor.
Radiation therapy. Women who have had previous radiation therapy for another cancer in the pelvic region, that is the lower portion of the abdomen which is between hip bone, it have an increased and greater risk of uterine cancer.
Diet. Women who eat foods high in animal fat may have an increased risk of uterine cancer.
Longer exposure to the hormaone known as estrogen and an imbalance of the estrogen is greatly relevant to many of following risk factors:
- Females who started having the periods before age of 12 years or go through menopause later in their life. Female who take the hormone replacement therapy after her menopause, specially if she is only taking the estrogen, which is also the important risk factor in developing the uterine cancer. The risk gets lower for those females who take the estrogen along with some other r sex hormone which is called as progesterone.
- Females who never have been pregnant.
Diagnosis of uterine cancer:
It is diagnosed through the fallowing procedures:
- Pelvic exam.
Treatment of uterine cancer:
Common methods of treatment are discussed below:
- Hormone therapy.
- Lymph node dissection.
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy.
Treatments depend upon the stage at which the cancer was diagnosed. According to different stages of the uterine cancer following treatments are given:
Treatment options by stage
You are recommended one or a combination of these treatment types depending a variety of factors, such as the tumor type, the tumor’s stage, and other medical problems you may have.
Stage 1 uterine cancer:
- Only surgery is undergone to treat the cancer.
- Patien is put on the surgery by either radiation therapy or by chemotherapy
- Hormone therapy is also given with a progesterone type drug. It is given to the orally or even through an intra uterine device which is used in the special situations.
- All these Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy are given to the patient with stage 1 uterine cancer.
Stage 2 uterine cancer:
- Surgery is given with either radiation therapy or with chemotherapy
- The Surgery, the radiation therapy, and the chemotherapy are given altogether.
Stage 3 uterine cancer:
- Surgery is given with either radiation therapy or with chemotherapy
- The Surgery, the radiation therapy, and the chemotherapy are given.
Stage 4 uterine cancer:
- Surgery is given to the patient in stage 4 uterine cancer.
- Radiation therapy is given in the stage 4 uterine cancer.
- Hormone therapy is given to the patient in this stage.
- Patient is put on the Chemotherapy or chemo.
Uterine cancer prevention:
Prevention from uterine cancer lies in avoiding the exposure to risk factors.
Survival rate of uterine cancer:
If the cancer is diagnosed as local which means it does not spread to other nearby areas or organs. This caner at the diagnosis is about 95 percent. If this cancer is diagnosed in with regional spread, then its five year survival rate is almost 68 percent, and if it is diagnosed after the cancer has spread more and distantly, then it is 18 percent.
Statistics of uterine cancer:
In the year 2014, it was an estimation that 54,870 women in the United State would be diagnosed with the uterine endometrial cancer. In addition It was estimated that 10,170 deaths would occur from this disease .