Stomach cancer and symptoms stomach cancer

By | July 9, 2015

symptoms of stomach cancer

Cancer is caused due to uncontrolled and abnormal growth of cancerous cells. It can start in any of the body parts. In some cases it may take the form of mass of cancerous cells called tumors.  Signs and symptoms of different types of cancer are different. Their method of diagnosis and treatment is also somewhat different. Type of cancer is named based on the body part it is developed in.

What is stomach cancer?

Stomach cancer is also known as gastric cancer. It is a type of cancer that gets started in the stomach. In order to understand the stomach cancer, it is important to know about the normal structure and functioning of the stomach. In stomach cancer malignant (cancer) cells are formed in the lining of the stomach. Stomach is an important organ in digestive system. It is in the shape of English alphabet J. Its function is the processing of nutrients like nutrients, mineral, carbohydrates, fats, water and protein..Moreover it helps in churning of food and its elimination from the body. From stomach food is passed to small intestine and then moves to large intestine from where it is eliminated out of body.

Who treats stomach cancer?

Every doctor can not treat every disease. A specific disease can be cured or treated by a doctor that specializes in that disease. You team of doctors that will help in diagnosis and treatment will be consisting of following members and doctors:

  • Surgical oncologist.
  • Medical oncologist.
  • Radiation oncologist.
  • Gastroenterologist.
  • Dietitian.
  • Naturopathic clinician.
  • Pain management practitioner.
  • Rehabilitation therapist.
  • Mind-body therapist.
  • Pastoral care provide.

Types of stomach cancer:

There are different types of stomach cancer including:

  • Adenocarcinoma.
  • Lymphoma
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor .
  • Carcinoid tumor.
  • squamous cell carcinoma.
  • small cell carcinoma.
  • Leiomyosarcoma.

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Adenocarcinoma stomach cancer:

Adenocarcinoma accounts for almost 90% to 95% of all the types of cancers of the stomach Whenever we used to the term stomach or gastric cancer, it refers to Adenocarcinoma. This cancer develops from the cells which form the innermost lining of the stomach which is called as the mucosa.

Lymphoma stomach cancer:

This type of stomach cancer that is lymphoma is the cancer of immune system tissues that are sometimes found in the wall of the stomach. Almost 4% of stomach cancers are lymphomas. Its treatment and outlook depends upon the type of lymphoma.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor:

As said earlier cancer may take the form of tumor, and that happens in case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor which is a kind of stomach cancer. This type of stomach cancer is very rarely occurring caner. Those tumors that start in very early form of cells in the wall of the stomach called as interstitial cells of Cajal. Sometimes these tumors are non cancerous (benign).Some other are cancerous. Though gastrointestinal stromal tumor can be found anywhere in the digestive tract, but most of them are found in the stomach.

Carcinoid tumor:

This type of tumors starts in hormone making cells of the stomach. Mostly these tumors do not spread to other organs. Almost 3% of stomach cancers are carcinoid tumors.

Squalors cell carcinoma:

This type of stomach cancer is very rarely occurring cancer.

Small cell carcinoma:

This type of stomach cancer is very rarely occurring cancer.

Leiomyosarcoma:

This type of stomach cancer is very rarely occurring cancer.

Causes of stomach cancer?

There are certain factors that are known to be the cause of developing stomach. It is not known how exactly they cause this cancer. Research is being done to figure out how they cause stomach cancer. Following are the factors that are known to be the cause of stomach cancer.

  • Helicobacter pylori infection.
  • Tobacco.
  • Anti inflammatory drugs.
  • Reduced immunity.
  • Work chemicals.
  • Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Acid reflux

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Symptoms of stomach cancer:

Signs and symptoms of stomach cancer are listed below:

  • Indigestion.
  • Feeling bloated after you eat a meal.
  • Heartburn.
  • Slight nausea.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Fatigue.
  • Feeling full after intake of small amount of food.
  • Heartburn that remains severe and persistent.
  • Indigestion that becomes severe and unrelenting.
  • Nausea that becomes persistent and unexplained.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Vomiting that is persistent.
  • Weight loss that is unintentional.
  • Bloodin your stool.
  • Weight lossfor no reason.
  • Trouble swallowing.
  • Yellowish eyesor skin.
  • Swelling in your stomach
  • Constipationor diarrhea.
  • Weaknessor feeling tired.
  • Heartburn.

Risk factors for stomach cancer:

Listed below are the risk factors for developing stomach cancer:

  • Age, greater the age is or ilder you are, more chances are there that you will suffer from stomach cancer.
  • Diet which is rich in salts is more likely to suffer from stomach cancer as compare to the diet that contains less amount of salt.
  •  Stomach disease and disorders can increase the risk of developing gastric cancer or stomach cancer.
    • If you have blood group A, you are more likely to suffer from stomach cancer.
      • Stomach infection like Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach which is a bacterial infection.
      • Inflammation of stomach called as Chronic gastritis.
      • Pernicious anemia.
      • Intestinal metaplasia. It a condition in which the normal stomach lining is replaced with the cells that line the intestine.
      • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or gastric polyps.
    • Eating smoked foods and the food that is low in fruits and vegetables.
    • Food that have not been prepared or stored in a proper way.
    • Being older or being male.
    • Smoking cigarettes.
    • Having someone in your family like a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach cancer.
    • A family history of stomach cancers.
    • Having polyp in the stomach longer than 2 centimeters.
    • Chronic stomach inflammation.
    • Swelling in the stomach.
    • Suffering from anemia.
    • Your being overweight or obese.
    • Getting stomach surgery done for ulcer.
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection.
    • Some genes.
    • Dealing in materials like coal, metal, timber, or rubber industries.
    • Exposure to asbestos.

Diagnosis of stomach cancer:

Diagnosis starts with physical examination. Later it proceeds with other tests.

  • Physical examination.
  • Blood tests.
  • Upper endoscopy.
  • Upper GI series test.
  • CT scan.
  • Biopsy.

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Physical examination:

During physical examination doctors checks and examines your skin and your other physical conditions. After physical examination doctor refers you to other doctor who will carry out your further tests.

Blood test:

Several blood tests are taken to check the shape and size of cells nd to check whether cancerous cells are present in the blood or not.

Upper endoscopy:

In endoscopy a small thin tube is passed to throat via mouth down to the stomach. This tube also have camera attaché to it which can take pictures and videos of inner part of stomach.

Upper GI series test:

In this type of test you are made to drink a chalky liquid with a substance called barium. This fluid coats your stomach and makes it show up clearly on X-rays.

CT scan:

This is a type of x ray that takes the picture of inner stomach.

Biopsy:

During biopsy doctor will take a small piece of tissue from your stomach and  look at it under a microscope for signs of cancer cells.

Treatment of stomach cancer:

Stromal tumors in the stomach begin in supporting connective tissue of stomach and they are treated differently from gastric cancer.

Many treatments can be used to cure and fight against stomach cancer .Choice of type or method of treatment depends upon at which stage it is diagnosed and how much it has been spread.

Surgery:

Your doctor may remove part of your stomach or some stomach tissues nearby that have cancer cells in them. Surgery helps in getting rid of the tumor. Moreover it helps to stop cancer from spreading to other parts of your body. If stomach cancer is in a more advanced stage, then doctor might need to remove all of your stomach.

Some of the tumors can keep food from moving in and out of your stomach. In such a situation, you might have surgery to put in a stent, which is a device that keeps the pathways open.

Chemotherapy:

Drugs can kill your cancer cells or keep them from growing further. You may take them as pills or through an IV at a clinic. Chemotherapy usually takes several weeks. These drugs can cause side effects, but the doctor can help you find ways to feel better during treatment.

Radiation:

High energy waves or particles can kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Doctor may use an X ray or some other machine to beam radiation at the spot where your tumor is present.

Chemoradiation:

In this type of treatment your doctor may use this combination of chemotherapy and radiation to shrink your tumor before getting your surgery done.

Targeted drugs:

There are some newer drugs that are different because they fight only cancer cells. Treatments, like chemotherapy and radiation, can kill healthy cells along with diseased cancerous cells. As a consequence, targeted therapies have fewer side effects than these other treatments.

Prevention from stomach cancer:

Listed below are the ways by which you can prevent yourself from getting suffered from stomach cancer.

Treat stomach infections:

If you have developed ulcers from an H. pylori infection, get your ulcer treatment done for it. Some antibiotics can kill these bacteria that cause infections, and other drugs will heal the sores in the lining of your stomach to cut your risk of developing stomach cancer.

Take healthy diet:

Add more fresh fruits and vegetables on your plate every day. They are high in fiber and in some type of vitamins that can lower your cancer risk. You should avoid very salty, pickled, cured, or smoked foods like hot dogs, processed lunch meats, or smoked cheeses. You should keep your weight at a healthy level. Being overweight or obese can also raise your risk of the disease.

Maintain normal weight:

Maintaining weight to normal weight also prevents you from getting suffered from stomach cancer.

Quit smoking:

Do not smoke cigarette because it contains tobacco which increases your stomach cancer risk which gets double if you use it.

Keep check and balance on use of aspirin or NSAID:

If you take aspirin daily to prevent heart problems or you take NSAID drugs for arthr. You should keep its use in balance. It will prevent you from getting suffered from stomach cancer.

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Approved drugs for stomach cancer:

Listed below are the drugs that have been approved for the treatment of stomach or gastric cancer:

Drug Combinations for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer:

Drugs Approved for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors:

Survival rate for stomach cancer:

In cases where doctors find the stomach cancer in its early stages and when the cancer is still only in the stomach, its five-year survival rate is about 63%. When doctors find the stomach cancer when it has spread to areas near the stomach or to nearby lymph nodes, its five-year survival rate is about 28%.

Five year survival rate for stage 1 A is 71 percent. For stage 1 B is 57 percent. For stage II A it is 46 percent. 5 year survival rate for stage II B is 33 percent and for stage IIIA it is 20 %, 14 percent for stage III B, 9 percent for stage III C and 4 percent for stage IV.

Statistics of stomach cancer:

Stomach cancer has now become the 15th most common cancer amongst adults in the UK. About 7,100 cases are diagnosed each year. Almost out of every 100 cancers diagnosed 2 of them are cancer of the stomach (2%). They are twice as many cases are diagnosed in men as in women.

References:

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=causes+of+stomach+cancer&oq=causes+of+stomach+cancer&aqs=chrome..69i57.8582j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/stomachcancer/detailedguide/stomach-cancer-what-is-stomach-cancer

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stomach-cancer/basics/symptoms/con-20038197

https://www.google.com.pk/search?sourceid=chrome-psyapi2&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8&q=%5Bstomach%20cancer%20symptoms&oq=%5Bstomach%20cancer%20symptoms&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.9579j0j7

http://www.webmd.com/cancer/stomach-gastric-cancer#1

http://www.cancercenter.com/stomach-cancer/diagnostics-and-treatment/tab/experts/

http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/stomach

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