Ovarian Cancer And Signs Of Ovarian Cancer

By | August 16, 2015

signs of ovarian cancer

This type of cancer is related to females because it happens in female organs which are known as ovaries. It leads to infertility in females. We will share with you in this post the causes, symptoms of ovarian cancer, its diagnosis and treatment.

 What is ovarian cancer?

It is a disease where malignant or cancer cells are found or formed in the organs that are known as ovaries. Ovaries are two of two small, almond shaped organs that are located on each side of the tube called as uterus that store eggs which are germ cells and that produce female hormones which are estrogen and progesterone.

Stages of ovarian cancer:

It has following 4 stages

  1. Stage 1 ovarian cancer.
  2. Stage 2 ovarian cancer.
  3. Stage 3 ovarian cancer.
  4. Stage 4 ovarian cancer.

Causes of ovarian cancer:

Exact causes of this cancer development are not known but its risk factors have been identified and will be discussed in this article.

Ovarian cancer symptoms:

Signs of ovarian cancer and symptoms of ovarian cancer are listed below:

In most of the cases, ovarian cancer might cause early symptoms. The common symptoms of ovarian cancer are written down below:

  • Pain in your belly or pelvis.
  • Trouble and problem in eating, or feeling very full quickly by eating only small amount of food.
  • Frequent bloating.
  • Problems in urination, like as an urgent need to urinate or urinating more often as compare to usual urination.

If you are having some all or even some of these symptoms, it occurs almost daily for more than 2 or 3 weeks, consult  with your doctor.

  • It feels like different than your normal digestive or menstrual problems.
  • It starts suddenly.
  • These symptoms often happen almost every day and do not go away.

Risk factors for ovarian cancer:

Here we go with risk factors of ovarian cancer as cause of it is still unknown.

  • Age.
  • Obesity.
  • Reproductive history.
  • Gynecological history.
  • Birth control.
  • Fertility drugs.
  • Androgen.
  • Estrogen therapy.
  • Talcum powder.
  • Family history of cancer.
  • Personal history of breast cancer.
  • Hereditary syndromes.
  • Smoking.
  • Diet.
  • Anelgesics.signs of ovarian cancer

Age

Risk of developing ovarian cancer becomes higher when you grow older. Ovarian cancer is rare in those females who are younger than 40 years of age . Most ovarian cancers develop after menopause. 50 percent of all ovarian cancers are found in the females who are 63 years of age or older.

Obesity

Various researches s have looked  up at the relationship or association of obesity and ovarian cancer. On overall, it seems  like that obese women or overweight women and having  a body mass index of at least thirty are at a higher risk of developing  this ovarian cancer.

Reproductive history

Those fmales who have been pregnant and carried it to its term before age of 26 have a lower risk of ovarian cancer than women who have not. The risk goes down or decreases with each full term pregnancy. Females who have their first full term pregnancy after age of  35 years or who have never carried a pregnancy to term have a the higher risk of ovarian cancer development as compare to the others.Breastfeeding can lower the risk even further.

Birth control

Women who use oral contraceptives which are also known as birth control pills  have a lower risk of  developing the ovarian cancer. This lower risk is seen after only three to six months of using these pill, and the risk gets lower the longer the pills are used. Such lower risk continues for so many years after the pill is stopped using.

The recent study have found that the females who have used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate  which I an injectable hormonal contraceptive, they have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. This risk of overian cancer development was even got lower if the females had used it for three or more years.

Gynecologic surgery

Tubal ligation is to have your tubes tied can reduce the chance of your developing ovarian cancer up to 2/3. A hysterectomy which is the removal of the uterus without removal the ovaries is also seemed to reduce the risk of getting ovarian cancer developed  by about 1/3

Fertility drugs

In most of the studies, researchers have found  out that using the fertility drug like clomiphene citrate Clomid for a time  longer than 1 year can  increase the risk for developing ovarian tumors or cancer. The risk is seemed to be highest in those females  who did not get pregnant while they were on this drug. These Fertility drugs seem to increase the risk of that type of the ovarian tumors which is known as “low malignant potential” . If  females  are taking fertility drugs, they should discuss the potential risks with her doctor. But, women who are infertile can be at higher risk  as compare to fertile females even in the case  if they do not use fertility drugs. It mayt be in part because of the reason that they have not  carried a pregnancy to the term or have used birth control pills that are protective.

Androgens:

These are male hormones. A drug which is known as Danazol, increases androgen levels in the female body, was found to be linking or associating with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in a study which id very small. However In some larger study, this association or that was not confirmed in it , but females who take androgens are found to have the higher risk of  developing the ovarian cancer. Some other studies about the role of androgens in ovarian cancer are also needed to understand it in detail.

Estrogen therapy or hormone therapy:

Some t studies have suggested that  females who are using estrogens after their menopause have an increased and greater risk of developing ovarian cancer. This risk seems to be greater in  those females who are taking estrogen alone without  taking the progesterone for many years almost from 5 to 10 years.This increased risk is less for females who are  taking both estrogen and progesterone.

signs of ovarian cancer

Family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or the colorectal cancer:

Ovarian cancer can run in familiy.Moreover Your ovarian cancer risk is increased if your mother, sister, or daughter has  ovarian cancer. This risk gets higher the more relatives you have with ovarian cancer. Increased risk for ovarian cancer can come from your father’s side as well.

A family history of some other types of cancer such as colorectal and breast cancer is linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer. It is because of the reason that these cancers can be caused by an inherited mutation (change) in certain genes that cause a family cancer syndrome that increases the risk of ovarian cancer.

Family cancer syndromes:

Some syndromes that are running within your family may increase your chance or risk of developing the ovarian cancer.

Hereditary breast cancer syndrome and ovarian cancer syndrome:

This type of syndrome is happened by inherited mutations or changes in the genes  which are BRCA1 gene and BRCA2 gene, as well as there is the possibility that some of other genes that have not  been yet identified. This type of syndrome is linked to the high risk of developing breast cancer  as well as the ovarian, the fallopian tube, and the  primary peritoneal cancers. Such  risk of some other cancers, such as the  pancreatic cancer and the prostate cancer can  also increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer.

PTEN tumor hamartoma syndrome:

This type of syndrome can also increase the risk of getting suffered from ovarian cancer. If you are not having this type of syndrome then you are less likely to suffer from ovarian cancer.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer:

This type of syndrome can also increase the risk of getting suffered from ovarian cancer. If you are not having this type of syndrome then you are less likely to suffer from ovarian cancer.

MUTYH-associated polyposis:

This type of syndrome can also increase the risk of getting suffered from ovarian cancer. If you are not having this type of syndrome then you are less likely to suffer from ovarian cancer.

Personal history of the breast cancer:

If you have had breast cancer, you might also have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer. There are several causes behind it for this. Some of the reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer may also affect breast cancer risk. The risk of ovarian cancer after breast cancer is highest in those women with a family history of breast cancer. The family history of breast cancer may be caused by an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, which is linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Talcum powder

It has been report that talcum powder when applied directly to the genital area or to the sanitary napkins may proved to be carcinogenic and cancer causing to the ovaries. Some other studies reported that a very slight or small increase in risk of ovarian cancer in females who use talc on the genital area.  talcum powder was sometimes contaminated with asbestos which is a known cancer causing mineral. It may explain its association with ovarian cancer in some of the studies. Since 1970s, body and face powder products have been required by law to be asbestos free as it may cause skin cancer when used on face or body. Proving  safety of these new products will require the follow up studies of females who have used it for many years. There is no such evidence at present that will be linking cornstarch powders with any women cancer.

ovarian cancer symptoms

Diet

The study of females who followed a low fat diet for at least four years showed a lower risk of developing the ovarian cancer. Some other studies have revealed that a reduced rate of ovarian cancer in females who eat a diet or food that is  high in vegetables, however some other studies disagree about this. American Cancer Society recommendation is that eating a variety of healthy foods, having an emphasis on plant source. You should eat at least 2  and ½ cups of fruits and vegetables each day, as well as some servings of whole grain foods from plant source such as the breads,  the cereals, the grain products, rice, pasta and beans. Limit  amount of red meat  usage and processed meats you eat.  Though the effect of such dietary recommendations on the ovarian cancer risk remains not sure, following such things can help a person to prevent several other diseases, which include some other types of cancer as well.

Analgesics

In certain  studies, both the  aspirin and the acetaminophen have been appeared to reduce the risk of developing ovarian cancer. But, the information is not consistent. Females who do not already take these medicines at regular basis or for other health conditions must not start doing it to try to avoid ovarian cancer. Some More research is required on this issue.

Smoking and alcohol use

Smoking does not exactly increase the risk of ovarian cancer overall, however it is linked to an increased risk for  mucinous type.

Who treats ovarian cancer?

A doctor that specializes is gynecology and cancer and in chemotherapy is called as gynecologic oncologist and such a doctor treats ovarian cancer.

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer:

Ovarian cancer is diagnosed by following ways.

  • Physical examination.
  • Medical history.
  • Specialist consultation.
  • Colonoscopy
  • Biopsy
  • Blood tests.
  • Imaging test.
  • CT scan.
  • MRI.
  • Chest X ray.
  • Barium enema x ray.
  • PET Scan (Position emission tymography)

Treatment of ovarian cancer:

Ovarian cancer is treated by following procedure however choice of treatment procedure depends upon what stage of ovarian cancer are you suffering from.

Prevention of ovarian cancer:

Prevention from ovarian cancer lies in avoid the exposure or contact with the risk factors that increase the cancer of getting suffer from ovarian cancer.

Survival rate of ovarian cancer:

Females who are  diagnosed with the ovarian cancer when they are younger than 65 years of age can do better and survive as compare to older women or females. If the ovarian cancer is found and then treated before such cancer has spread to outside the ovary during stages IA and stage IB, the 5 yearrelativesurvival rate is 92 percent. But, only 15 percent of all ovarian cancers are diagnosed at this early stage.

References:

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovariancancer/detailedguide/ovarian-cancer-risk-factors

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovariancancer/detailedguide/ovarian-cancer-treating-general-info

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/ovarian-cancer/treatment/stages-of-ovarian-cancer

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