By | May 3, 2015

Microflora or gut flora: these are terms that refer to a complex community of microorganisms that live in animals. The digestive tract forms the largest reservoir of microorganisms that are mutual to humans. The microorganisms living in the digestive tract of animals benefit from their host by taking on the energy emanating from the fermentation of carbohydrates that have not undergone digestion along with the subsequent absorption of fatty acids.



Butyrates are the most significant of the fatty acids that are metabolized by the epithelium and consequently propionates by the liver. Butyrates are responsible for acetating the muscle tissue. In this regard, it is important to note that the intestinal bacteria play the role of synthesizing vitamin K and Vitamin B while metabolizing xenobiotics, sterols and bile acids altogether.

Note that the human body carries more than a trillion microorganisms within the digestive tract or intestines to be specific. The numerous microorganisms carry out metabolic activities that range or resemble to those carried out by an organ. One can describe the relationship between flora and humans to be rather commensal than mutualistic.

The microorganisms carry out activities such as fermenting unused substrates, preventing the growth of harmful pathogens and consequently regulating the gut’s development altogether while producing vitamin K and  biotin altogether. In some cases, the microorganisms are capable of producing hormones which direct the host to store fats while in return the microorganisms develop a situation of nutrient rich environment from which the microorganism thrive. Some species are capable of causing infections, increasing the risk of cancer and causing disease.

Microflora exists within the digestive tract based on various aspects including immune status, colonization history and the hosts’ diet. It is important to note that some microbes are better suited in complementing specific metabolic enzymes over others altogether. For instance, once bacteria receive the right amount of substrates, the latter determines how they breakdown carbohydrates. Research describes the identification of microflora as quite complicated since the species vary widely among individuals though the nature and the type of microflora remains quite constant despite the age, diet or lifestyle.

Some of the dominant types include proteobacteria, actinobacteria, bacteroidetes and firmicutes. The latter type of bacteria belong to the genera fusobacterium, clostridium and bacteroides though penicillium, aspergillus, saccharomyces and candida are some of the common genera of fungi.

From an entrotype point of view, the bacteriological ecosystem is not dictated by national divisions, body weight, gender or age though long-term diets have a consequent influence on entrotypes (classification of organisms based on the consequent bacteriological ecosystem).

From this point of view it is important to appreciate the notion that bacteria function within the gut by turning the carbohydrates into shart chain fatty acids due to fermentation.  Fermentation constitutes an aspect known as proteolvtic fermentation that functions by breaking down any protein oriented enzymes, elastin, collagen and bacterial cells that are found in food. Apparently, the process may result to the production of carcinogens and toxins giving the notion that a diet that constitutes few amounts of proteins reduces any chances of exposure to toxins.

Significant and beneficial flora increase the aspect of water absorption by the gut while reducing the counts of any damaging bacteria and increasing the growth of any human gut cells altogether while stimulating the growth of consequent indigenous bacteria. Fatty acids are highly beneficial to the growth of the intestine since they encourage the growth of any epithelial cells while controlling their differentiation and proliferation altogether.

The latter also tends to constitute the development of lymphoid tissues within or near the gut altogether. From this point of view, microfloras constitute a large surface area in the gut of any mammal from which their activities have been sufficiently discussed in this essay.

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