Estrogen are female hormones that orient within the estrous and menstrual reproductive cycles. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones while the synthetic type can be non steroidal altogether. Estrogens can also be ingested as oral contraceptives from which they can be used in the replacement therapy for postmenopause women and in consequent hormone replacement therapy for trans women. Estrogens can diffuse across the cell membrane from which once they are inside the cell, they can bind and activate estrogen receptors from which the latter modulates the expression oriented by genes. Estrogens bind to consequently activate the rapid signaling membrane estrogen receptors altogether.
Estriol, estradiol and estrone are some of the naturally occurring estrogens that are found in women from which estradiol is the predominant estrogen especially in the reproductive years in terms of two main aspects, that is estrogenic activity and serum levels. For women in menopause, estrone constitutes the predominant circulating estrogen from which the estrogen remains the predominant circulating estrogen with reference to serum levels altogether. Estrio is found in large amounts and is consequently the weakest while on the contrary, the estradiol happens to be the strongest with a potency of more intensity to that of estriol. From this perspective, the estradiol is the determinant estrogen in women who are not pregnant while during pregnancy, the latter constitutes estriol and estrone may develop to be the primary form of estrogen within the body of most postmenopause oriented women. From this perspective, the estrogens are quite dominant within the female body.
Estrogens are produced by the ovaries while during pregnancy, the estrogens are produced by the placenta. The follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the ovary from which the granulose cells constitute the production of estrogens altogether with reference to the corpora lutea and the ovarian follicles. The estrogens are produced in smaller amounts by other tissues that comprise of the breasts, adrenal glands and the liver altogether. The latter secondary sources are quite important especially for women under the postmenopausal endeavor. Moreover, the fat cells are known to produce estrogen altogether.
The theca internal cells are responsible for the production of estrogens through the synthesis of androstenedione from the consequent cholesterol altogether. Androstenedione is known to be an entity of weak androgenic activity that serves predominantly as a consequent precursor especially for potent androgens that include estrogen and testrosterone. The latter compound then proceeds to the basal membrane from which they are converted into estrone by the granulose cells. The process involving the conversion of androstenedione into testosterone is catalyzed by hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase while aromatase is the catalysts behind the conversion of testosterone and androstenedione into estradiol and estrone respectively.
It is important to note that estrogens are in both men and women respectively though they are found in higher levels in women from which they are responsible for the development of some secondary sexual aspects in women that include breasts and the thickening of the endometrium among other aspects associated with the menstrual cycle. From this perspective, the significance depicted by the estrogen is quite necessary and constitutes a variety of necessary functions that orient within the pregnancy durations an aspect that constitutes the reproductive system as a whole. From this perspective, females should practice healthy endeavors in the perspective of physical exercise and good dietary habits that supplement the functions of the estrogen altogether. Estrogen also helps ion maintain vessels and the skin, accelerates on metabolism, increases on fat storage, increases on uterine growth and supplements the production of hepatic production with reference to binding proteins and the processes of coagulation altogether.