What is cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that arises in the cervix. It is because of the abnormal or uncontrolled growth of cells which become cancerous cells and are different from normal cells in the sense that they can not perform proper functioning in the body moreover that have the ability and capability to invade and spread to some other parts of the body. Earlier there are commonly no obvious symptoms that exist. Later on these symptoms of cervical cancer may include the abnormal vaginal bleeding, the pelvic pain or even the pain during sexual intercourse.
What is cervix:
It is the narrow neck like passage which forms the lower portion or end of the womb.
Types of cervical cancer:
There are only two main or we can say major types of cervical cancer however there are some other types as well but they are rare. These types names are based upon the type or name of the cell that they effect. Here we go with the major types:
Other being the
- Mantle cell lymphoma
Squamous cell cancer:
This type of cancer is caused in the Squamous cells that is why it is given the name on the name of these cells that it effects. These are the quite flat, and skin like cells. They cover the outer surface of the cervix . Almost seven to eight out of ten 10 cervical cancers arethese squamous cell cancer that accounts from seventy to eighty percent of cancer.
Adenomatous is give this name based on the name of the cell this cancer effects and then transforms it into the cancerous cells. These cells are actually the gland cells which produce the mucus. The cervix carries the gland cells which are scattered along the inner side of the passageway which runs from the cervix to womb that is in the endocervical canal. This type of cervical cancer is a cancer of such gland cells. As It is less common as compare to the Squamous cell cancer, however, it has become more and more common in the recent few years. More than one in ten cervical cancers are the Adenocarcinoma one and they accounts for ten to 15 percent of all types of cervical cancer. This type of cancer is treated in the exact same way as the Squamous cell cancer of the cervix region.
Lymphoma has its name originated from the word lymph. It is very rarely occurring type of cervical cancer. Lymph is the name of nodes that are present in the body. Therefore lymphoma is the cancer of lymph modes. It in turn has further types. In lymph nodes white blood cells which are also known by the name lymphocytes are produced that protect the body against infections and against foreign invaders. It is more specifically cancer of immune system as lymph nodes are part of immune system.
Types of lymphoma:
There are many types of lymphoma, however its major types are only 2 and rest of the types are its subtypes. Its types and subtypes have been classified based on the type of immune system cells they affect.
Lymphoma has following major types which are the subtypes of the cervical cancer:
Its 2 major types are
In this type of lymphoma, B cells and T cells are affected. B cells and T cells are the types of lymphocyte which are white blood cell and they have special roles in immune system. In US, B cell lymphomas is much more common as compare to T cell lymphoma.
In this type of lymphoma, the cancer cells usually become an abnormal type of B lymphocyte, which are named as Reed-Sternberg cells. There are much subtypes of the Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and are differentiated by differences seen under the microscope. However, very high percentage of the cases is classed as the classic Hodgkin’s.
Mantle cell lymphoma: It is also known as MCL. It is a rarely occurring disease; more specifically it is B cell NHL. It most often affects men who are over the age of 60 years. The disease may get aggressive as it is fast growing.
Stages of cervical cancer:
It has four main stages, but stages are further divided in to sub stages. Here we go with the stages:
Stage 1 cervical cancer:
This stage means that the cancer is only in the neck region of the womb. It is further divided in to following sub divisions
- Stage 1A cervical cancer.
- Stage 1B cervical cancer.
In turn these sub stages of stage 1 cervical cancer are further sub divided in following stages:
- Stage 1A1 cervical cancer.
- Stage 1A2 cervical cancer.
- Stage 1B1 cervical cancer.
- stage 1B2 cervical cancer.
In turn these sub stages of stage 1 cervical cancer are further sub divided in following stages:
- Stage 2A1 cervical cancer.
- Stage 2A2 cervical cancer.
Stage 2 cervical cancers:
Stage 2 cervical cancer is divided in to following sub stages:
- Stage 2A.
- Stage 2B.
Stage 3 cervical cancer:
Is further divided in to following sub divisions:
- Stage 3A cervical cancer.
- Stage 3B cervical cancer.
Stage 4 cervical cancer:
is further divided in to following sub divisions
- Stage 4A cervical cancer.
- Stage 4B cervical cancer.
Risk factors for cervical cancer:
Risk factors are the factors that make you more likely to suffer from the disease or increase your chance of getting sick from a particular disease. Every type of cancer have different risk factors, however some of the risk factors might be common in many types of the cancer. Here we will be sharing with you the risk factors for cervical cancer. So here we go with it:
Human papilloma virus infection:
Such type of viral infection increases your chances of getting the cervical cancer and becoming sick with it.
Smoking is the act or the activity that has great dangers for your life it has many side effects, however in this post we will only look at its effects on the cervical cancer. Cigarette smoke contains more than 3 thousand of the chemicals that are known to cause cancer and are termed as carcinogens. It effects the immune system, decreases the immunity of the body and gets you suffer from infections like HIV infection or some other severe infection that are the leading cause of not only the cervical cancer but also of many other cancer types.
HIV infection is the cause behind the AIDS and that is the only reason females who suffer from AIDS are at a much greater risk or getting suffer from the cervical cancer disease. In addition it also effects the immune system. Some females take such medication which results in the suppression of the immune system and can become the cause of the cervical cancer.
Such name is given to this infection on the name of the bacteria that causes this type of infection. No matter what type of the infection is they are not good for the person because almost all types of infections increase your chances of developing the cancer. In this way we should avoid such risk factors that cause the infections consequently you will remain safe from the infections.
A diet low in fruits and vegetables
Doctors always suggest you to eat fruits and vegetables to keep your self healthy. It keeps you healthy by maintain the balance amount of nutrients, vitamins and minerals in the body and if these elements are present in your body in the right proportion then you will be at the least risk of developing the cervical cancer and even many other types of cancer.
Your being overweight is not good for your health it may lead to serious disease and consequences. There are many side effects of being fat, obese or overweight. If you want to lose excess weight, please refer to our weight loss articles where we have given wide range of methods to reduce the weight in the best possible and healthy way. You should keep check of your weight as if increased beyond normal level it increase the risk of developing and suffering from the cervical cancer.
Long-term use of oral contraceptives :
Contraceptives are also termed as birth control pills. They are taken orally hence given that name. If they are used for longer period of time they increase your risk of developing this disease of cervical cancer.
Intrauterine device use
A study has revealed that a female that makes use Intrauterine device is at ales risk of getting suffer from cervical cancer.
Having multiple full-term pregnancies:
If you were having the Having multiple full term pregnancies then such pregnancies may increase your risk or chances of getting suffer from the disease.
Your Being younger than seventeen years of age at your first full term pregnancy:
Your Being younger than seventeen years of age at your first full term pregnancy can increase your chance or risk of developing the cervical cancer.
It is also a main and important risk factor for cervical cancer. Many of the low income and poor women do not have a ready access to the health care services, such as Pap tests. It means to say that means such females or women might not get the screening or the treatment for cervical pre cancers and resulting they suffer from the cervical cancer.
It is an other risk factor for the cervical cancer.
A family history of cervical cancer:
If there is some cervical cancer history in your family then your are more likely to suffer from the disease and you have increased risk for developing it. If some of your family member that is some person in your family or relatives are having the cervical cancer the probably you can get that cervical cancer but it is not necessary that having family history for this type of disease will surely get you the disease.
Cervical cancer symptoms:
The symptoms for cervical cancer and signs of cervical cancer are written down below:
- Irregular and unusual vaginal bleeding.
- Discharge from vagina with an unpleasant smell.
- watery discharge from the vagina.
- discharge tinged with blood through the vagina.
- Pain in the pelvic region or in the back region.
- pain during having sex.
- problems and trouble while urinating.
- problems in the defecating.
Diagnosis of cervical cancer:
Following ways are adopted to diagnose the cervical cancer:
- Physical examination.
- Medical history.
- Cervical biopsy.
- Colposcopic biopsy.
- Endocervical curettage.
- Cone biopsy.
- Loop electrosurgical procedure
- Cold knife cone biopsy
Ø examination under anesthesia.
Ø Imaging tests:
ü CT Scan.
ü X ray.
ü Intravenous urography
ü Positron emission tomography
Treatment of cervical cancer:
Like many other types of the cancer, cervical cancer treatment also depends upon the stage at which it is diagnosed at being treated. However some commonly used method for treatment of cervical cancer as follow:
- Radiation therapy and it is also known as radio therapy
- Chemotherapythat is also known as chemo.
- Targeted therapy.
Precautions of cervical cancer:
Precautions of cervical cancer lie in avoiding the risk factors. The chance of getting suffer from cervical cancer is decreased to some extent if risk factors are avoided. However, if you are not having the risk factors, it is not necessary that you will not get the disease for sure.
Success rate of cervical cancer:
In the year 2014 an estimation was given that 12,900 females in the United States diagnosed with cervical cancer. It was also estimated that 4,100 deaths will occur the disease in that year.
Survival rate of cervical cancer:
Different stages of the cervical cancer have different survival rate which are as follow: