Health is really a great blessing of God. You can celebrate each happiness if you are healthy and good from inside. It is often said that it is not the outside whether that matters a lot but it is your inner whether that maters a lot and it is in the form of your inner health and happiness. However, great and courageous people are not those who are healthy but are the ones that fight their battle against their disease and that disease make them more powerful than other. Cancer may attack any part of the body and so does the bones. Let us see what is the bone cancer in a bit detail.
It is a disease of bones where tumors are formed in the bones. It may be primary where cancers develops in the bones itself or may be secondary where it does not start in bones instead it spreads to bones from other parts of body where it was started or develop it is known as metastasize.
Types of bone cancer:
Main types of bone cancer are two:
- Primary bone cancer.
- Ewing’s sarcoma.
- Spindle cell sarcoma.
- Undifferentiated sarcoma of bone.
- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
- Secondary bone cancer.
Grades of bone cancer:
According to the TNM system bone cancer cells are divided from GX to G4.
- GX grade bone cancer.
- G1 grade bone cancer.
- G2 grade bone cancer.
- G3 grade bone cancer.
- G4 grade bone cancer.
GX means that the grade cannot be assessed. Grades 1 and grade 2 bone cancer are low grade tumors. Grades 3 and grade 4 bone cancer are high grade tumors.
According to the Enneking system bone cancer tumors are graded from the G0 grade to G2 grade.
- G0 is a non cancerous tumor.
- G1 is a low grade cancer
- G2 is a high grade cancer
Stages of bone cancer:
Following are the stages of bone cancer.
- Stage 1 bone cancer.
- Stage 1 A bone cancer.
- Stage 1 B bone cancer.
- Stage 2. Bone cancer
- Stage 2 A bone cancer.
- Stage 2 B bone cancer.
- Stage 3 bone cancer.
- Stage 4 bone cancer.
- Stage 4 A bone cancer.
- Stage 4 B bone cancer.
Who treats bone cancer?
A doctor who is known as hematologist treats the bone cancer.
A doctor who makes use of surgery to treat bone and joint problems
orthopedic surgeon who has been specialized in treating cancer of the bones and the joints
Doctor who makes use of radiation to treat cancer.
A doctor who makes use chemotherapy and other medicines to treat cancer
Causes of bone cancer:
Exact cause of bone cancer is not known however, there are certain risk factors that have been identified to be associated with bone cancer.
Bone cancer symptoms:
- Pain: Pain occurs in the bones especially when you are putting pressure or involved in some activity that involves legs or arms. At the onset of the disease or bone cancer pain is not much severe and does not last long and constant, however as it grows further pain becomes consistent and constant. Pain usually also occur at night.
- Swelling: Swelling in area of the pain might not occur until the weeks later. However, It may be possible that you feel a lump or the mass depending upon the location of that tumor.
Cancers that are in the bones of the neck could cause a lump in the back region of the throat and that can lead to trouble in swallowing and make it hard to breathe.
- Problems with movement: It will create trouble in movement or activities that involve movement like walking or in exercise
- Tiredness: You feel tiredness all the time even if you do a very little bit physical activity.
- Fever or sweats: Most of the time you get fever and sweats.
- Weight loss: Bone cancer results in unexpected weight loss
- Fractures: It occurs very rarely a weakened bone may break and it is called a pathological fracture.
Risk factors for bone cancer
Risk factors for bone cancer are listed down below:
- Genetic disorders.
- Other bone conditions.
- Being tumors.
- Radiation therapy.
- Bone marrow transplantation.
- Non cancerous bone diseases.
Diagnosis of bone cancer:
· Radionuclide bone scans.
- Positron emission tomography.
- Imaging tests
- CT scan.
- X ray.
- Needle biopsy.
- Surgical bone biopsy.
Treatment of bone cancer:
Treatment could be done for bone cancer in following ways:
Prevention of bone cancer:
Prevention from bone cancer lies in avoiding exposure to risk factors that we discussed earlier.
Statistics of bone cancer:
Almost 2,970 new cases will be diagnosed each year and almost 1,490 deaths because of bone cancer are expected to happen. Primary bones cancer account for less than 0.2 percent of all types of cancers. In the adults, almost over 40 percent of the primary bone cancers are chondrosarcomas.
Survival rate of bone cancer:
For all types of bone cancers combined, the five year survival rate is almost 70 %. However, it varies by cancer type and its stage and grades. For osteosarcomas and Ewing sarcomas which are localized in the area where they started, the 5 year survival rate is about 60 percent to 80 %.